64 From a sustainable development perspective, CO2 systems should also balance the need for accurate and useful data with capital concerns with the need to be simple and transparent, and include transaction costs low enough to include small producers. While labelling systems provide access to niche markets, many manufacturers fear that these standards will become a means of green protectionism. In Switzerland, for example, the Bio Switzerland label excludes organic air cargo products. This provision directly affects East African fruit and vegetable producers who would otherwise be considered organic producers. 1 In the case of food using the so-called Swiss reduction formula, all tariffs in a country are reduced to the value of its “coefficient”, with lower tariffs being generally less severely reduced. Second, the multilateral removal of trade barriers can reduce political opposition to free trade in each of the countries concerned. This is because groups that otherwise oppose or are indifferent to trade policy reforms could join the free trade campaign if they see the trade agreement as export opportunities to other countries. Therefore, free trade agreements between countries or regions are a useful strategy for liberalizing world trade. 71 It is difficult to say that tariff and subsidy concessions from a Doha agreement would help the global economy recover from the crisis.
The reductions in the maximum permitted subsidies and the level of tariffs, which are currently being proposed, have already been widely reflected in reality; Internal reforms mean that “applied” interest rates are already close to or below future ceilings under review. Of course, a WTO trade agreement would be an example of multilateral economic cooperation at a time when such cooperation is urgently needed for a future global climate agreement. The implementation of self-sustaining liberalisation reforms would also be a useful bulwark against regressions15, but it does not encourage companies or developing countries to seek new export opportunities. The failure of Doha has enabled China to reach a global level of trade. It has signed bilateral trade agreements with dozens of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Chinese companies have the right to develop the country`s oil and other raw materials. In exchange, China offers loans and technical or commercial assistance. Free trade allows unrestricted imports and exports of goods and services between two or more countries. Trade agreements are forged to reduce or eliminate import or export quotas. These help participating countries to act competitively. Two countries participate in bilateral agreements. Both countries agree to relax trade restrictions to expand business opportunities between them.
They reduce tariffs and give themselves privileged trade status. In general, the point of friction is important national industries that are protected or subsidized by the state. In most countries, they are active in the automotive, oil and food industries. The Obama administration negotiated with the European Union the world`s largest bilateral agreement, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. 41 Agriculture has traditionally been the most protected sector in Switzerland. Tariffs are particularly high in the dairy subsector and for products such as poultry, beef, pork, onions, sugar, potatoes and grape juice, which reach more than 1000% for some meat products. Further complicating matters is that 77.3% of related agricultural duties are “specific rights” that are not expressed in value (WTO, ICC and UNCTAD 2008). This means that they are not defined as a percentage of import prices, but, for example, as a certain amount per tonne. This makes it impossible to compare with other rates unless some rates are converted to value-equivalent (AVE).