Article 24.7.1 invites parties to conduct environmental impact assessments “of proposed projects. This can have a huge impact,” which appears to be a new addition to a trade deal, but given that all three countries already have national requirements for such impact assessments, it`s unclear what this means or why it`s enshrined in a trade deal. The chapter repeatedly calls in other treaties for cooperation between the parties with respect to participation in new multilateral environmental agreements, including: it is impossible to isolate the effects of NAFTA within the broader economy. It is difficult, for example, to say with certainty what percentage of the current U.S. trade deficit, which stood at a record $65,677 million at the end of 2005, is directly attributable to NAFTA. It is also unclear what percentage of the 3.3 million production jobs that were lost in the United States between 1998 and 2004 are the result of NAFTA and what percentage would have occurred without this trade agreement. It is not even certain that the increased trade activity between the NAFTA states results exclusively from the trade agreement. Those who support the agreement generally call for NAFTA to be recognized for increased trade activity and reject the idea that the agreement has resulted in job losses or a growing trade deficit with Canada and Mexico ($8.039 million and $4,263 million respectively in December 2005). Those critical of the deal usually associate it with these deficits and job losses. Finally, there are a number of other parts of the USMCA text that touch not only on access to medicines, but also on other aspects of pharmaceutical policy. Annex 12-F (medicinal products) is an example of this, which sets out detailed procedural requirements for authorisation procedures and pharmaceutical inspections. This is very similar to Annex 8-C of the TPP, which contains provisions that reduce standards for assessing the safety and efficacy of medicines, increase pressure to speed up regulatory processes (with simultaneous safety risks) and limit the public publication of information on pharmaceutical inspections .
Buchanan K. New Zealand: Agreements with five countries exclude mandatory investor-state dispute settlement procedures [Internet]. 2018 Bilaterals.org [cited 2019 Feb 21]. Available at: www.bilaterals.org/?new-zealand-agreements-with-five The CUSMA results, signed on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Buenos Aires in November 2018, preserve key elements of long-term trade relations and contain new and updated provisions to address the trade issues of the twenty-first century and promote opportunities for nearly half a billion people whom North America calls a homeland. As with the definition of the labour standards specific to each government, each country retains sovereignty over the definition of its enforcement procedures. There is some irony, for example, that the United States, under the Obama administration, changed its policy of allowing the importation of goods made by prison workers when domestic supply did not meet “consumer demand,” and that it continues to contain clauses prohibiting the importation of goods made by prison workers while allowing their own businesses, Hire prison officers. As described below: On March 13, 2020, the House of Commons passed Bill C-4 transposing the USMCA before exposing itself for 6 weeks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. . .